Cancer comes with a learning curve. Fortunately, the general population, not touched by the disease, doesn’t know all of the cancer vocabulary.

Because our main efforts in sharing Avery’s story are to educate and inform, here is a fluid list of Leukemia vernacular we may continue to use along the way with Avery’s journey.

Words to Know

General Leukemia vocabulary

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): a type of leukemia, or cancer of the blood and blood-forming tissue, where many abnormal lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) are produced by the body.

absolute neutrophil count (ANC): measure of the number of neutrophils in the blood; neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that help the body fight infection; ANC may be used to check for infection, inflammation, leukemia, and other conditions; lower a person’s absolute neutrophil count is, the higher the risk is of getting an infection; an ANC below 500 means there is a high risk of getting an infection

adverse effect: an unexpected medical problem that happens during treatment with a drug or other therapy; may be mild, moderate, or severe, and may be caused by something other than the drug or therapy being given

antibiotic prophylaxis: antibiotics given as a precaution to prevent, rather than treat, an infection

antifungal: drug that treats infections caused by fungi

B cell (also called B lymphocyte): type of white blood cell that makes antibodies. B cells are part of the immune system and develop from stem cells in the bone marrow

Biopatch: sterile polyurethane foam dressing infused with an antiseptic used in the sterilization of Central Line; helps fight infections

biopsy: removal of a sample of tissue from the body for further examination; gives doctors a closer look at what’s going on inside to help make a diagnosis and choose the right treatment

blast: an immature blood cell that grows into a red blood cell, white blood cell, or platelet

blood cancer (also called hematologic cancer): cancer that begins in blood-forming tissue, such as the bone marrow, or in the cells of the immune system; examples of blood cancer are leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma

blood cell count with differential (also called CBC with differential): measure of the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the blood, including the different types of white blood cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils); amount of hemoglobin (substance in the blood that carries oxygen) and the hematocrit (the amount of whole blood that is made up of red blood cells) are also measured; blood cell count with differential is used to help diagnose and monitor many different conditions, including anemia and infection

blood draw (also called phlebotomy and venipuncture): procedure in which a needle is used to take blood from a vein, usually for laboratory testing; may also be done to remove extra red blood cells from the blood, to treat certain blood disorders

bone marrow: a thick, spongy liquid inside the bones; makes all kinds of blood cells: red blood cells that carry oxygen, white blood cells that fight infections, and platelets that help blood clot

bone marrow biopsy: procedure in which a small sample of bone with bone marrow inside it is removed, usually from the hip bone; a small area of skin and the surface of the bone underneath are numbed with an anesthetic; then, a special, wide needle is pushed into the bone and rotated to remove a sample of bone with the bone marrow inside it; sample is sent to a laboratory to be looked at under a microscope

cancer: a group of many diseases that involve cells; cancer happens when abnormal cells grow and spread very fast

care team: group of different medical specialists and health care professionals who help a patient through the challenges of dealing with cancer

cancer cells: cells that grow and divide uncontrollably, which may spread quickly throughout the body

cardioversion: process of restoring the heart’s normal rhythm by applying a controlled electric shock to the exterior of the chest

Central Line (also called central venous catheter): device used to draw blood and give treatments, including IV fluids, drugs, or blood transfusions; a thin, flexible tube is inserted into a vein, usually below the collarbone and is guided into a large vein above the right side of the heart called the superior vena cava; a needle is then inserted into a port outside of the body to draw blood or give fluids; may stay in place for weeks or months and helps avoid the need for repeated needle sticks; there are several types of central venous access catheters

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): fluid that flows in and around the hollow spaces of the brain and spinal cord, and between two of the meninges (the thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord); made by tissue called the choroid plexus in the ventricles (hollow spaces) in the brain

chemotherapy: use of special medicines to treat cancer; several chemotherapy drugs are often combined to attack the cancer cells in different ways

childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk group: way of grouping patients that is used to plan treatment for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and is based on the patient’s age and white blood cell count at diagnosis; risk groups are described as either standard (low) risk or high risk: other factors that affect the risk group include the type of leukemia cells, whether there are certain chromosome changes, and how quickly the leukemia responds to treatment

childhood cancer (also called pediatric cancer): term used to describe cancers that occur between birth and 14 years of age; childhood cancers are very rare and may differ from adult cancers in the way they grow and spread, how they are treated, and how they respond to treatment; most common types of childhood cancer are leukemia, brain and spinal cord tumors, lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor (a type of kidney cancer), retinoblastoma, and cancers of the bone and soft tissue

Clostridium difficile (C. Diff): type of bacterium found in human and animal waste; a common cause of diarrhea that occurs in hospitals

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) staph infection: type of staph bacteria that commonly live on a person’s skin and is harmless when it remains outside the body; can cause infections when present in large amounts, or when present in the bloodstream; patients with a compromised immune system and those with a central IV line are at greatest risk of CoNS infections

co-insurance (also called cost-sharing): percentage of health care costs an insured patient pays after meeting a health care plan’s yearly deductible. (For example, an 80/20 co-insurance rate means that the insurance company pays 80% of approved health care costs, and the patient pays the remaining 20% of costs out-of-pocket)

complete blood count (CBC): a common blood test that evaluates the three major types of cells in the blood: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

CT scan (also called computed tomography scan or CAT scan): type of X-ray in which a machine rotates around the patient and creates a picture of the inside of the body from different angles; regular X-rays show bones and other areas of the body, but CT scans show much more detail

cure: to fully restore health; sometimes used when a person’s cancer has not returned for at least five years after treatment; concept of “cure” is difficult to apply to cancer because undetected cancer cells can sometimes remain in the body after treatment, causing the cancer to return later, called a recurrence; recurrence after five years is still possible

defibrillation: stopping of fibrillation of the heart by administering a controlled electric shock in order to allow restoration of the normal rhythm

ECHO (also called an echocardiogram): computer picture of the heart created by bouncing high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs of the chest; shows the size, shape, and position of the heart, as well as the parts inside the heart, such as the valves, and the motion of the heart while it is beating; may be used to help diagnose heart problems, such as abnormal heart valves and heart rhythms, damage to the heart muscle from a heart attack, and heart murmurs, in addition to an infection on or around the heart valves, blood clots or tumors inside the heart, and fluid buildup in the sac around the heart

edema: swelling caused by excess fluid in body tissues

EEG (also called an electroencephalogram): recording of electrical activity in the brain made by placing electrodes on the scalp (the skin covering the top of the head), and impulses are sent to a special machine; may be used to diagnose brain and sleep disorders

EKG (also called ECG and electrocardiogram): line graph that shows changes in the electrical activity of the heart over time; made by an instrument called an electrocardiograph; can show that there are abnormal conditions, such as blocked arteries, changes in electrolytes (particles with electrical charges), and changes in the way electrical currents pass through the heart tissue

financial stress (also called economic burden, economic hardship, financial burden, financial distress, financial hardship, and financial toxicity): in medicine, a term used to describe problems a patient has related to the cost of medical care; not having health insurance or having a lot of costs for medical care not covered by health insurance can cause financial problems and may lead to debt and bankruptcy; can also affect a patient’s quality of life and access to medical care; cancer patients are more likely to have financial stress than people without cancer

FISH (also called fluorescence in situ hybridization): laboratory method used to look at genes or chromosomes in cells and tissues; pieces of DNA that contain a fluorescent dye are made in the laboratory and added to a cell or tissue sample.; when these pieces of DNA bind to certain genes or areas on chromosomes in the sample, they light up when viewed under a microscope with a special light; FISH can be used to identify where a specific gene is located on a chromosome, how many copies of the gene are present, and any chromosomal abnormalities; also used to help diagnose diseases, such as cancer, and help plan treatment

flow cytometry: laboratory method that measures the number of cells, the percentage of live cells, and certain characteristics of cells, such as size and shape, in a sample of blood, bone marrow, or other tissue; presence of tumor markers, such as antigens, on the surface of the cells are also measured: cells are stained with a light-sensitive dye, placed in a fluid, and then passed one at a time through a beam of light; measurements are based on how the stained cells react to the beam of light; used in basic research and to help diagnose and manage certain diseases, including cancer

hemoglobin (HGB): substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen through the blood to different parts of the body

hypertension (also called high blood pressure): blood pressure of 140/90 or higher. Hypertension usually has no symptoms; can harm the arteries and cause an increase in the risk of stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, and blindness

hypoglycemia: abnormally low blood sugar

immunocompromised (also called immunosuppressed): having a weakened immune system with a reduced ability to fight infections and other diseases; may be caused by certain diseases or conditions, such as AIDS, cancer, diabetes, malnutrition, and certain genetic disorders; may also be caused by certain medicines or treatments, such as anticancer drugs, radiation therapy, and stem cell or organ transplant.

immunosuppression: condition that causes the body’s immune system to decrease in effectiveness; can be caused by disease or chemotherapy

immunotherapy (also known as biologic therapy): treatment that stimulates the body’s own immune system to fight cancer cells; uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function

induction therapy (also called first-line therapy, primary therapy, and primary treatment): first treatment given for a disease.; often part of a standard set of treatments, such as surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation; when used by itself, induction therapy is the one accepted as the best treatment; if it doesn’t cure the disease or it causes severe side effects, other treatment may be added or used instead

intensification therapy (also called consolidation therapy and postremission therapy): treatment that is given after cancer has disappeared following the initial therapy; used to kill any cancer cells that may be left in the body; may include radiation therapy, a stem cell transplant, or treatment with drugs that kill cancer cells

intravenous immunoglobulin (also called IVIG): substance made from antibodies that have been taken from the blood of many healthy donors; given to a patient through a needle or tube inserted into a vein. Intravenous immunoglobulins are used to treat certain types of immune disorders in which there are low amounts of antibodies in the blood; also used to treat many different autoimmune disorders, infections, or other conditions; may also be used to help prevent infections in patients who have had a stem cell or organ transplant; intravenous immunoglobulins are a type of immunotherapy

late effects: side effects of cancer treatment that occur months or years after a diagnosis of cancer because of the related treatments, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery

leukemia: cancer of the white blood cells, which are also referred to as leukocytes or WBCs

lumbar puncture (also called spinal tap): procedure in which a small amount of fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord (the cerebrospinal fluid) is removed and examined

lymph nodes: little round or bean-shaped bumps that can’t be felt unless they become swollen; act as filters that remove germs; contain lymphocytes, white blood cells that fight infection

lymphocyte: type of white blood cell found in lymph nodes; make antibodies, special proteins that fight off germs and stop infections from spreading by trapping disease-causing germs and destroying them

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): safe and painless test that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed pictures of the body’s organs and structures

Minimal Residual Disease (MRD): the presence of leukemic cells below the threshold of detection; a sensitivity threshold of 10-4 has been shown to accurately predict patient outcomes; the presence of MRD is a strong predictor of relapse, achieving MRD(–) status early in the course of treatment has been shown to give patients a reduced risk of relapse and a stronger chance for longer overall survival.

Mucositis: complication of some cancer therapies in which the lining of the digestive system becomes inflamed; often seen as sores in the mouth

neutropenia: when the body has very low levels of certain white blood cells called neutrophils

neutrophil: a type of white blood cell, the body’s main defense against illness and infection

Next-generation sequencing (NGS): an extremely sensitive DNA sequencing method, with a peak sensitivity of 0.0001%, or 1 cancer cell in 1,000,000 normal cells; detect clonal rearrangements in immunoglobulin and/or T cell receptor genes; baseline sample or prior sample obtained at diagnosis with detectable disease is required to characterize leukemic clones for MRD analysis

NPO: Latin abbreviation for “nothing by mouth

oncologist: doctor who treats patients who have cancer; pediatric oncologists treat kids with cancer

Pericardial effusion: the buildup of too much fluid in the double-layered, saclike structure around the heart (pericardium); the space between these layers typically contains a thin layer of fluid, but if the pericardium is diseased or injured, the resulting inflammation can lead to excess fluid

physical therapist: specialist who uses exercises, stretches, and other techniques to help patients improve mobility, decrease pain, and reduce any disability related to illness or injury

platelets: tiny cells in the blood that help blood clot

Pneumonitis: inflammation of the lungs that may be caused by disease, infection, radiation therapy, allergy, or irritation of lung tissue by inhaled substances

port (or treatment port): medical device inserted under the skin and attached to a vein that allows medications, blood products, and nutrients to be given intravenously; eliminates the need for repeated needle sticks to start an IV line or draw blood

protocol: method or plan; in this case, the medications and treatments a patient will receive to help fight cancer

red blood cells (also called erythrocytes or RBCs): cells that deliver oxygen to all parts of the body

regimen: treatment plan or system; in terms of cancer treatment, a regimen can also include things like diet and exercise

relapse: reappearance of cancer after it has been treated

remission: when cancer symptoms disappear or are significantly reduced

side effects: unwanted reactions or effects to medication or therapy; in terms of cancer treatment, common side effects include hair loss and nausea

white blood cells (also called leukocytes or WBCs): these cells, part of the germ-fighting immune system, attack invaders such as viruses and bacteria; each type of WBC — including neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes — has its own role in fighting different kinds of germs

CAR-T Therapy vocabulary

autologous transplant: procedure in which a patient’s healthy stem cells (blood-forming cells) are collected from the blood or bone marrow before treatment, stored, and then given back to the patient after treatment

CAR T-cell therapy (also called chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy): type of treatment in which a patient’s T cells (a type of immune system cell) are changed in the laboratory so they will attack cancer cells; T cells are taken from a patient’s blood; then the gene for a special receptor that binds to a certain protein on the patient’s cancer cells is added to the T cells in the laboratory.; the special receptor is called a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR); large numbers of the CAR T cells are grown in the laboratory and given to the patient by infusion.; CAR T-cell therapy is used to treat certain blood cancers, and it is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer

chimeric antigen receptor (also called CAR): special receptor created in the laboratory that is designed to bind to certain proteins on cancer cells; chimeric antigen receptor is then added to immune cells called T cells; this helps the T cells find and kill cancer cells that have the specific protein that the receptor is designed to bind; changed T cells, called chimeric antigen receptor T cells, are then grown in large numbers in the laboratory and given to cancer patients; also being studied in the treatment of various types of cancer

cytokine: type of protein that is made by certain immune and non-immune cells and has an effect on the immune system; some cytokines stimulate the immune system and others slow it down; can also be made in the laboratory and used to help the body fight cancer, infections, and other diseases: examples of cytokines are interleukins, interferons, and colony-stimulating factors (filgrastim, sargramostim)

cytokine release syndrome (CRS): condition that may occur after treatment with some types of immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibodies and CAR-T cells; CRS is caused by a large, rapid release of cytokines into the blood from immune cells affected by the immunotherapy signs and symptoms of cytokine release syndrome include fever, nausea, headache, rash, rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and trouble breathing: most patients have a mild reaction, but sometimes, the reaction may be severe or life threatening

cytokine storm (also called hypercytokinemia): severe immune reaction in which the body releases too many cytokines into the blood too quickly: cytokines play an important role in normal immune responses, but having a large amount of them released in the body all at once can be harmful; a cytokine storm can occur as a result of an infection, autoimmune condition, or other disease; may also occur after treatment with some types of immunotherapy; signs and symptoms include high fever, inflammation (redness and swelling), and severe fatigue and nausea; sometimes, a cytokine storm may be severe or life threatening and lead to multiple organ failure

Bone Marrow Transplant vocabulary

allogeneic transplantation: a procedure where cells, tissue, or organs are transplanted to a person from a compatible donor who is not an identical twin of the patient or from an unrelated donor who is genetically similar to the patient

bone marrow transplant (BMT): procedure that involves replacing unhealthy bone marrow with healthy stem cells (blood-forming cells) from a donor

engraftment: when the blood-forming cells received on transplant day start to grow and make healthy blood cells; means your new cells are working properly and starting to rebuild your immune system; also marks the start of the recovery process; white blood cells are the first cells to engraft, followed by red blood cells and platelets

GAVE (Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia, also called Watermelon Stomach): a condition in which the blood vessels in the lining of the stomach become fragile and become prone to rupture and bleeding; stomach lining exhibits the characteristic stripes of a watermelon when viewed by endoscopy; symptoms may include chronic anemia, acute gastrointestinal bleeding, vomiting of blood and dark, tarry stools

graft failure: a significant complication following allogeneic transplant; may be manifested as either lack of initial engraftment of donor cells, or loss of donor cells after initial engraftment

graft-versus-host disease (also called GVHD): condition that occurs when donated stem cells or bone marrow (the graft) see the healthy tissues in the patient’s body (the host) as foreign and attack them; can also occur after an organ transplant; can cause damage to the host’s tissues and organs, especially the skin, liver, intestines, eyes, mouth, hair, nails, joints, muscles, lungs, kidneys, and genitals.; signs and symptoms may be severe and life threatening and can occur within the first few months after transplant (acute) or much later (chronic)

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; also called sinusoidal obstruction syndrome): condition in which some of the veins in the liver are blocked causing a decrease in blood flow inside the liver and may lead to liver damage; signs and symptoms include weight gain, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, dark-colored urine, and increased liver size; may occur at some point in time after radiation therapy to the liver and bile ducts or after high-dose anticancer drugs were given before a stem cell transplant

high-dose chemotherapy: an intensive drug treatment to kill cancer cells, but that also destroys the bone marrow and can cause other severe side effects; usually followed by bone marrow or stem cell transplantation to rebuild the bone marrow

HLA (also called human leukocyte antigen and human lymphocyte antigen): type of molecule found on the surface of most cells in the body; play an important part in the body’s immune response to foreign substances; make up a person’s tissue type, which varies from person to person; HLA tests are done before a donor stem cell or organ transplant, to find out if tissues match between the donor and the person receiving the transplant

HLA matching (also called human leukocyte antigen matching): process in which blood or tissue samples are tested for human leukocyte antigens (HLAs); HLA matching is done before a donor stem cell or organ transplant to find out if tissues match between the donor and the person receiving the transplant

Nasojejunal Tube (NJ Tube): a small tube that is passed through the nose and into the small bowel to feed children who cannot get enough nutrients by eating

palliative care (may also be called supportive care): any form of treatment that concentrates on reducing a patient’s symptoms or treatment side effects, improving quality of life, and supporting patients and their families

PRES (Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome): presents with rapid onset of symptoms including headache, seizures, altered consciousness, and visual disturbance; often associated with acute hypertension; if promptly recognized and treated, the clinical syndrome usually resolves within a week

rebirth day: the day a transplant recipient receives the new healthy cells from their donor; many recipients celebrate this day similar to a birthday as they have been given a “second chance at life

stem cells: primitive (early) cells found primarily in the bone marrow that are capable of developing into the three types of mature blood cells present in blood: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

stem cell transplant: procedure that involves introducing stem cells (cells found primarily in the bone marrow from which all types of blood cells develop) into the body in the hopes that the new cells will rebuild the immune system

Total Parenteral Nutrition (also called TPN): a mixture of fluids a given they her IV to provide most of the nutrients the body needs that includes electrolytes, sugars, amino acids (protein), vitamins, minerals, and often lipids (fats)


Abatacept: used to reduce inflammatory symptoms such as swelling, pain, and stiffness; attaches to surface of inflammatory cells and blocks communication between these cells, therefore lessening inflammation

Adenosine: used for a heart conditions marked by episodes of rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeats

Albuterol aerosol: helps open up the airways in your lungs to make it easier to breathe; is a bronchodilator; provides supplemental oxygen with a blow-by method

Amiodarone (also called Corderone): drug used to treat certain types of abnormal heart rhythms that have not gotten better with other drugs; affects the electrical activity of the heart; a type of antiarrhythmic agent

Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG): an infusion of horse or rabbit-derived antibodies against human T-cells and their precursors; used in the prevention and treatment of acute rejection in transplantation: helps fight off GVHD (graft vs host disease)

Ativan (also called Lorazepam): commonly used as part of a protocol to reduce nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy; to reduce anxiety disorders, and to induce sleep and facilitate muscle relaxation

Atropine Sulfate: used to block nerve stimulation of muscles and glands and relax smooth muscles; also used to increase heart rate, reduce secretions, and treat the effects of certain poisons; a type of antimuscarinic agent and a type of tropane alkaloid

Calcium Chloride: used to treat or prevent low calcium levels and to protect the heart from high potassium levels

Cytarabine (also called ARA-C): drug used with other drugs to treat adults and children with AML and to prevent and treat a type of leukemia that has spread to the meninges (the tissue that covers and protects the brain and spinal cord): may also be used to treat ALL and blastic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia.; also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer; stops cells from making DNA and may kill cancer cells and is a type of antimetabolite

Defibrotide sodium (also called Defitelio): used to treat hepatic veno-occlusive disease (a condition in which small veins in the liver are blocked) in adults and children who also have kidney or lung problems after receiving a stem cell transplant; may affect the cells that line the inside of blood vessels and may help improve blood flow inside the liver

Dexamethasone: drug used to reduce inflammation and lower the body’s immune response; used with other drugs to treat leukemia, lymphoma, mycosis fungoides (a type of skin lymphoma), and multiple myeloma; also used alone or with other drugs to prevent or treat many other diseases and conditions related to cancer and its treatment, such as anemia (a low level of red blood cells), allergic reactions, swelling in the brain, and high levels of calcium in the blood; a type of corticosteroid

Dexmedetomidine (also called Precedex): sedative that is used to sedate a patient who is under intensive medical care without risk of respiratory depression

Dextrose: a mixture of glucose and water used to treat low blood sugar or water loss without electrolyte loss

Dilaudid (also called Exalgo, hydromorphone hydrochloride, and Hydrostat IR): drug used to treat moderate to severe pain; may also be used to treat certain types of cough; made from morphine and binds to opioid receptors in the central nervous system; type of opioid and a type of analgesic agent

Diphenhydramine: drug used to treat allergies and relieve cough and itching; a type of antihistamine

Epinephrine (also called adrenaline): hormone and neurotransmitter

Filgrastim: drug used under the brand names Neupogen, Zarxio, and Nivestym to treat neutropenia (a lower-than-normal number of white blood cells), prevent infection, and prepare the blood for the collection of certain types of blood cells, and under the brand name Granix to treat neutropenia; Filgrastim is used in patients who have certain cancers and neutropenia caused by some types of chemotherapy and in patients who have severe chronic neutropenia that is not caused by cancer treatment; also used before an autologous stem cell transplant; helps the bone marrow make more white blood cells; is a type of colony-stimulating factor

Fresh Frozen Plasma (also called FFP): a blood product made from the liquid portion of whole blood; used for management and prevention of bleeding, as a coagulation factors replacement; adds fluid and provides clotting factors in your blood

Hycet: used to relieve moderate to severe pain; contains an opioid pain reliever (hydrocodone) and a non-opioid pain reliever (acetaminophen); Hydrocodone works in the brain to change how your body feels and responds to pain, while Acetaminophen can also reduce a fever

Hydrocortisone: drug used to relieve the symptoms of certain hormone shortages and to suppress an immune response

Insulin: drug used to control the amount of sugar in the blood of patients with diabetes; a form of the hormone insulin that is made in the laboratory; controls blood sugar longer than insulin does; a type of therapeutic insulin

Ketamine (also called Ketalar): used to cause a loss of feeling and awareness and to induce sleep in patients; also being studied in the treatment of nerve pain caused by chemotherapy; blocks pathways to the brain that are involved in sensing pain; type of general anesthetic

Lasix (also called furosemide): used to treat the symptoms of fluid retention (edema); works in the kidneys to get rid of extra water and electrolytes

Lidocaine: substance used to relieve pain by blocking signals at the nerve endings in skin; can also be given intravenously to stop heart arrhythmias; a type of local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic

Magnesium Sulfate: drug used to treat pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (serious complications of pregnancy); also used for its ability to prevent the toxic side effects of certain drugs used to treat cancer; a type of anticonvulsant agent.

Methotrexate (also called MTX, Trexall, and Xatmep): used as a prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease

Methylprednisolone: corticosteroid hormone replacement

Mitoxantrone: damages the cell’s DNA and may kill cancer cells; also blocks a certain enzyme needed for cell division and DNA repair; may also stop certain immune cells from causing damage to the brain and spinal cord; a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor

Naloxone: treatment for constipation caused by narcotic medications; belongs to the family of drugs called narcotic antagonists

PEG-asparaginase (also called Oncaspar and pegaspargase): drug used with other drugs to treat adults and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia; used in patients whose cancer has not already been treated or who cannot be treated with asparaginase; made up of the enzyme L-asparaginase that is linked to a substance called PEG, which makes the drug stay in the body longer; L-asparaginase comes from the bacterium E. coli and breaks down the amino acid asparagine; may stop the growth of cancer cells that need asparagine to grow; is a type of protein synthesis inhibitor

Phentolamine: used to prevent and control high blood pressure during surgery

Phenylephrine: primarily used as a decongestant, to dilate the pupil, to increase blood pressure, and to relieve hemorrhoids

Ranitidine: used to prevent and relieve heartburn associated with acid indigestion and sour stomach by decreasing the amount of acid created by the stomach

Seroquel: treatment option for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); can be particularly effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder; works by helping to restore balance to the chemical messengers in the brain; can help to improve concentration, decrease anxiety, and improve moods and energy levels

Sodium Bicarbonate: used to decrease acidity in blood/urine; is an alkalizer

Tacrolimus: drug used to help reduce the risk of rejection by the body of organ and bone marrow transplants

Thiotepa (also called Tepadina): damages the cell’s DNA and may kill cancer cells; a type of alkylating agent; works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells; to reduce the risk of skin problems during treatment, shower or bathe with water and change any bandages or dressings at least twice a day until 48 hours after stopping treatment

Tocilizumab (Toci): for the treatment of severe CRS; works by blocking the activity of interleukin-6, a substance in the body that causes inflammation, without adversely affecting the CAR T-cell therapy itself

Valium (also called diazepam): drug used to treat mild to moderate anxiety and tension and to relax muscles

Vincristine: stops cancer cells from growing and dividing and may kill them

Voriconazole: drug that treats infections caused by fungi; anti-fungal prophylactic

Zofran (also called ondansetron hydrochloride): drug used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy and radiation therapy and nausea and vomiting after surgery; blocks the action of a chemical called serotonin, which binds to certain nerves and may trigger nausea and vomiting; blocking serotonin may help lessen nausea and vomiting; a type of antiemetic and a type of serotonin receptor antagonist

Most definitions are sourced from